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The module forward modelling / tomography allows the calculation of the complete electromagnetic or seismic wavefield for a 2-dimensional subsurface model. In addition a 2- and 3-dimensional tomographic approach based on SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique) is integrated for the inversion of transmission traveltime data. The module is useful for the following applications:
 

   GPR (Ground penetrating radar)

   reflection seismics

   refraction seismics

   borehole/borehole transmission
 

Forward modelling

 
 

sm_fig26

The module forward modelling allows the calculation of the complete electromagnetic or seismic wavefield for a 2-dimensional subsurface model. You may interactively edit any layer boundary and some predefined elements (e.g. circle or rectangle). The physical parameters may vary along the boundary whereby lateral changes are easily defined. The parameters are entered within a table which also may be used for entering the boundary values (see right figure above). The forward modelling is done using a Finite Difference scheme solving the Maxwell equations (elastic wave equation, respectively). 3 different sources are implemented: point- source, plane wave and exploding reflector model. Using the point source you may model the wave propagation from any point in the model (e.g. a transmitter at the surface). The exploding reflector model allows the modelling of a complete zero offset section in only one step. The complete wavefield or a single line is stored. The complete wavefield may be interpreted within the 3D-datainterpretation, the single line may be processed and interpreted like any 2D-data line.
 

 
 


 

Tomography

A 2- and 3-dimensional tomographic approach based on SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique) may be used for the inversion of transmission traveltime data. The geometries of the individual sources and receivers are arbitrary.
The figure at the lower left corner shows a synthetic example. The starting model is interactively constructed and may contain any kind of inhomogeneities. The geometry of the rays may be loaded into the starting model (see right figure below). The ray- tracing contained in the SIRT-algorithm is restricted to straight rays. An extension to curved rays based on a network raytracing solution is in preparation.
 

 
 


 

 

 

 
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