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The Integrated Seismic System (ISS) can be based on any combination of geophone, accelerometer and force balance accelerometers, in uni-, bi- and tri-axial combinations. Each sensor type has different advantages in terms of amplitude range, frequency range, reliability and cost. The tri-axial configuration affords the most accurate estimates of source parameters. An ISS International systems engineer would be happy to discuss the sensors and configurations best suited to your application - so please contact us at your convenience.


 

Geophones are usually the sensor of choice in most mining applications, because of the low cost, large bandwidth and excellent reliability. ISSI manufactures two kinds of geophones, with natural frequencies of 4.5Hz and 30Hz. The 4.5Hz geophone has a usable frequency bandwidth of between 3Hz and 2000Hz but must be installed to within 2 degrees of it's pre-set orientation with respect to the vertical. The 30Hz geophone is omni-directional and can be installed at any angle, with a usable frequency bandwidth of between 15Hz and 2000Hz.

Electronic frequency-dependent amplifiers may be used on these geophones. In this way the 4.5Hz geophone achieves a lower frequency limit of about 1Hz, while the 30Hz geophone may be extended down to 6Hz. The electronic extenders are fitted in-line with the cable external to the borehole.

Accelerometers are usually used where high-precision records of high-frequency events are demanded. The accelerometer that ISSI manufactures has a bandwidth of between about 0.2Hz and 2300Hz, with an extremely low intrinsic noise level.

Non-seismic Sensors

Any sensor with a slowly varying output which may be conditioned between -5V and +5V or 4mA and 20mA may be monitored as part of the ISS. Strain meters, creep meters, tilt meters and thermometers have all been successfully employed.


Tri-axial Geophone


Tri-axial Geophone with integrated waterblock cable
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