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Deep hard rock underground mining

Operation
A permanent underground installation of seismometers communicates with a central site Desktop Run-Time System (DRTS) located on surface for real-time seismic monitoring of the rock mass. A GPS timing module is used so that recorded seismic data may be integrated with seismic data from another nearby system for information about regional seismic events.

Communications
The RS485 protocol is used here to minimise cabling costs. With this approach multiple QS data acquisition units can be daisy-chained together with inexpensive 2-core twisted pair copper cable. Repeaters must be used if the distance between any two nodes exceeds 1.2km. Each link can support up to 10 QS units, with the modem rack providing the appropriate number of links.

Seismic Sensors
Each QS data acquisition unit can monitor and pre-process up to six seismic signals, in any combination of uni-, bi- or tri-axial seismic sensors. For each seismic channel up to 3 logical channels may be extracted with QS technology. Both geophones and accelerometers (piezoelectric and Force-Balance) are currently supported.

Seismic Data Processing & Interpretation
The seismograms of every seismic event that triggers multiple stations are transmitted to the DRTS and recorded. The seismic event is automatically processed and seismic source parameters including the location, time, radiated seismic energy and co-seismic inelastic deformation are automatically calculated. This data is confirmed later by manual processing with the software packages RMTS or XMTS. Spatial and temporal trends made then be detected and analysed using the interpretation packages Xdi or Jdi.


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